VTEX Developer Portal

Now you need to learn how this new component will talk with the back-end system, in other words, how it is going to consume and insert data in the platform.

Communication between store-front apps and VTEX IO is done through GraphQL APIs.

Understanding GraphQL

GraphQL is a language for APIs whose main advantage is the possibility to request specific data through a single endpoint, avoiding overfetching and underfetching.

To manage the data consumed in GraphQL, we will use a library called React Apollo that provides native components to perform data searches.

The main components in this library are:

NameDescription
useQueryReact Hook which, when executed, queries the server using the GraphQL API and returns what was requested in the query variables.
useMutationReact Hook which returns a function that, when executed, communicates with the server from the GraphQL API in order to send updates and overwrite data.

The useQuery React Hook returns an object that contains the following properties:

  • loading (boolean) - Returns true if the GraphQL API is still being executed. Otherwise, it returns false.
  • error (any) - Only assumes a value when an error occurs when communicating with the server.
  • data (any) - Contains the object returned from the query execution.

The useMutation React Hook returns an array containing:

  • A function that can be called at any time to communicate with the server.
  • An object that represents the current state of mutation that has the properties loading, error, and data.

Keeping in mind the objects received by the useQuery and useMutation React Hooks, it is possible to define what you want to render in React for the specific loading and error conditions, in addition to managing the content returned by queries made in the API (stored in data).

️ To better understand the detailed instructions below, we recommended having a basic knowledge of the GraphQL language. If you are not familiar with the solution, we recommended checking the documentation and reading it carefully before proceeding to the next steps.

Installing the React Apollo library

Using your terminal, access your app's directory and run the command shown below to install the npm React Apollo library:

yarn add react-apollo

Making queries in GraphQL

For your component to render the information provided by the VTEX IO platform, you have to query the data stored on the server using GraphQL APIs.

GraphQL-queryGraphQL-query

We will use the useQuery React Hook to do this:

  1. Open your app's code in the code editor of your choice.
  2. In the react folder, access the HelloData.tsx file or create it if it does not already exist.
  3. In this file, copy and paste the basic model below to build your GraphQL query:
import { useQuery } from 'react-apollo'
import QUERY_VALUE from './helloData.gql'

const HelloData = () => {
  const { loading, error, data } = useQuery(QUERY_VALUE)

  if (loading) {
    return 'Loading…'
  }
  if (error) {
    return `Error ${error}`
  }

  return `Done fetching ${data}`
}

export default HelloData

Note that the QUERY_VALUE property is being imported from another file called helloData.gql. The .gql extension hints that it is a file written in GraphQL. The content of this file varies depending on the query that the app will send as a request.

A simple example for helloData.gql would be:

query hello {
  hero {
    name  
    height
  }
}

The response, depending on the database, could be something like:

{
  "hero": {
    "name": "Luke Skywalker",
    "height": 1.72,
  }
}

Notice how the useQuery React Hook returns an object with loading, error, and data as parameters, which are filled from the query done on the server. By holding the values of these parameters, it is possible to condition what is rendered in the interface.

According to the example above, if loading returns true, the message Loading... will be rendered. If an error occurs, the message Error {error description} will be rendered instead. Finally, if the data parameter receives the values of the executed query correctly, the message Done fetching {data obtained from the query} will be rendered.

️ Check this practical example of a GraphQL query.

Mutating in GraphQL

In addition to queries, mutations are another type of operation available for GraphQL APIs.

Mutations are used to insert or modify data that already exists on the platform; they are used to send updates to the server.

GraphQL-mutationGraphQL-mutation

  1. Open your app's code in the code editor of your choice.
  2. In the react folder, access the HelloMutation.tsx file or create it if it does not already exist.
  3. In this file, copy and paste the basic model below to run a mutation gql using the React component:
import { useMutation } from 'react-apollo'
import MUTATION_VALUE from './helloMutation.gql'

const HelloMutation = () => {
  const [doSomething] = useMutation(MUTATION_VALUE)

  return <button onClick={() => { doSomething() }}>Click me</button>
}

export default HelloMutation

In this case, unlike the useQuery hook where the query is executed immediately, the call to the server will only be made after calling the function returned by the useMutation hook (doSomething in this example).

It is possible to add mutation parameters as doSomething function variables.

Let us say, for example, that one of the mutation variables you are running is the name of a city (cityName). One way to pass this variable would be:

- return <button onClick={() => { doSomething() }}>Click me</button>
+ return <button onClick={() => { doSomething({ variables: { cityName: 'Rio' ) }}>Click me</button>

️ Check this practical example of a GraphQL mutation.

Debugging queries and mutations in GraphQL

To test GraphQL queries and mutations, we will use the GraphQL IDE app.

To install this app on your VTEX account, run the following command on your terminal:

vtex install vtex.admin-graphql-ide

Once the app is installed, follow the steps outlined below:

  1. Access the VTEX admin for the account you are using.
  2. In the sidebar, go to Apps.
  3. Look for GraphQL IDE in the installed apps list.
  4. In the Choose your app from the list below field, select the name of the app where you want to debug/test. In this case, you need to choose the name of the app you are developing.

️ Remember that, until now, the front app you have been developing has been living in your local files, being connected to the VTEX platform only by the link. To find the name of your app in this listing and be able to debug, it needs to be already available (published) and properly installed in the account's Master workspace. The necessary settings to make your app publicly available are described in the last section of this walkthrough.

  1. On the left side of the text editor, type the query or mutation that you want to run for testing purposes.
  2. Then click on the play button, and the API query response will appear in the text editor to the right.

If you need help, there is a docs tab on the right corner of your screen that describes the queries and mutations available for the selected app.

GraphQL IDE exampleGraphQL IDE example
The example above shows how to use the GraphQL IDE Admin to query an internal route in the vtex.rewriter app.

Updated 3 days ago



6. Consuming data


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